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Video Streaming, Visually Explained

Just upload the MP4 to S3, and we're done, right? We wish it were that easy. On all but the most straightforward use cases, you'll need to consider the user experience across multiple platforms, devices, and network conditions. This is exactly what video streaming technologies set out to achieve.

Progressive Download#

The simplest way to achieve video playback over the web is to:

  • Obtain or create a single render of the underlying media, usually in the form of a static, large .mp4 file (.webm files are also popular);
  • Store that file on a server, under a publicly accessible URL;
  • Optionally, attach the source endpoint to a Content Delivery Network that will cache the original file in multiple data centers around the world, allowing the viewer to retrieve his copy faster from a local server;
  • Integrate a player component in your application.

When the player needs to start rendering a video, it will start downloading the file from the nearest CDN endpoint. As long as the network bandwidth is large enough to allow the player to download the file faster than it can play, playback will be smooth. However, a series of issues become evident:

  • The player UI size is usually not fixed but responsive and needs to be able to vary with device types and screen sizes. This makes choosing the right source file resolution problematic: since we’ll be handing responsiveness client-side, the source should ideally be able to accommodate the largest resolution we want to support.
  • A high-quality source file is usually very large in size, and it will take a long time to download even under good network conditions.
  • When users stop watching or skip portions of the clip, potentially large (and costly) amounts of downloaded data go to waste.

Progressive video download over a good network

Progressive download for static video files: bandwidth is potentially wasted.

Another issue with choosing the right quality vs. size for progressive download videos becomes apparent when we consider streaming under constrained networks. A high quality, high size render will have trouble buffering to keep up with playback, resulting in a bad user experience:

Progressive video download over a bad network

Progressive download over constrained networks results in a bad user experience.


The first step to fixing the problems with progressive downloads described above is to generate multiple renderings of the original media, with different bitrates. This is a process generally called encoding (or transcoding, since an already-encoded input is converted to one or more differently encoded outputs). Depending on the selected codec and configuration, a source file can be converted to a series of individual outputs of different qualities and sizes.

Each rendering might be broken up into same-length pieces called segments or fragments. This increases efficiency, as it allows players to granularly buffer content relative to the current playhead, rather than downloading an entire file blob. An alternative to segmentation is using HTTP range requests or a similar mechanism, depending on player and server feature availability. This allows a specific range of a file to be requested and downloaded, making it feasible to have a single, solid file output - however, the file must be encoded in such a way that each individual range allows for standalone rendering.

The structure of a video stream


Read our guides on the most popular streaming formats, containers and codecs.

Video processing workflows can be implemented using many different products and solutions, but the easiest way to get started is to make use of a web service for video transcoding and management, like the Veeplay Video API.

Transcoding a video to multiple qualities

The resulting rendering segments are then all uploaded to storage, cached on a CDN, and made available to players. A playlist index file is also generated, connecting each individual segment to a specific playback time interval and exposing metadata like information about bitrate and quality. Several protocols exist for managing the entire streaming process, the most popular being HLS and DASH.

HTTP Streaming Protocols#

HLS (HTTP Live Streaming) and DASH (Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP) are the two main competing standards for implementing live streaming. HLS was released by Apple in 2009 and is currently the market leader, while DASH was published in 2012 and is promoted by the DASH Industry Forum (Microsoft, Netflix, Google, Ericsson, Samsung, Adobe, etc.)

A master HLS m3u8 playlist that references multiple renderings might look like the example below. Notice the links to other playlist files for each individual render, connected to a specific bandwidth requirement and other metadata like resolution. Four video renditions are referenced, with varying resolutions and bandwidths, encoded with H.264 (AVC). One audio track is also referenced, as audio and video tracks are generally separated as part of the transcoding process.


Multiple audio tracks can be included, as well as subtitle tracks and other metadata.


Source: Apple’s HLS guide to creating a master playlist.

A simple HLS m3u8 playlist for a single rendering might look like this - notice links to the actual video segments, ordered by time interval:


Source: the HLS RFC 8216 specs.

Adaptive Bitrate Streaming#

A context-aware player can now download the playlist file, evaluate a series of on-device factors, like UI size and available bandwidth, and make a series of smart, local decisions about which of the segments to download and play at a given time. The result is adaptive bitrate streaming, or ABR - a process that optimizes both network costs and the end-user experience.

How video streaming works

Video streaming fixes the issues with progressive downloads.


We've simplified things for this representation. In real life, at least an audio track would also be included in the playlist and downloaded separately. Subtitle tracks or alternate audio might also be included, enabling the user to change the audio to another language or display any of the available subtitles.

Live Broadcast Streaming#

In the case of live events, the streaming process looks very similar to what we described above, the difference being that encoding and segmenting goes on continuously, in real-time:

How live video streaming works

Encoding, delivery, and rendering are continuous for live streams.

Stream latency can vary between 30+ seconds for baseline HLS or DASH implementations to around 5 seconds for tuned configurations of the same protocols. Latency can be improved by reducing the amount of buffer required, with the downside of potentially impacting playback robustness.

Video streaming latency

Low Latency Streaming#

An effort to implement low-latency streaming is underway for both HLS and DASH by splitting up the video segments into even smaller, independent pieces called chunks. These can be retrieved and rendered by the player as soon as they are available on the CDN, without needing to wait for a full segment to finish encoding. When supported by the CDN and players, this can reduce latency into the 1-5 seconds range.

How streaming latency works How low-latency streaming works

There are some disadvantages to this approach, though:

  • More chunks mean more HTTP requests that video players need to do to get the files, each request incurring additional network overhead;
  • HLS is susceptible to playlist bloat, as the list of chunks included in the playlist may become very long for events with large live rewind windows;
  • Smaller chunk durations reduce the efficiency of the video codec, as temporal similarities can't be exploited as well.
Last updated on by Gabi Dobocan